Once a wall is framed, put it in place as quickly as possible to free up the floor space. Before lifting the wall, double-check to make sure its height matches or is less than the distance from the floor to the underside of the plate that's attached to the ceiling.
Use a plumb bob and a chalk line to locate the position of the bottom plate on the floor. Lift up the wall and slide it into position, then nail it in place. Whenever you need to attach a new wall to a plaster wall or ceiling, drill pilot holes and use 3-inch-long drywall screws instead of nails to avoid breaking the plaster.
It's a good idea to have a helper for this part of the job. Otherwise, if the wall is long, you could strain your back or rack the wall. Even if the wall is short enough to raise and move yourself, it's easier to mark for plumb and hold the wall in position for nailing if you have a helper.
Dangle a plumb bob from the end and side of the ceiling plate to transfer the wall location to the floor. If you are working alone, hang the plumb bob from a nail in the plate. Repeat at the other end. This job is quicker with two people: One holds the string, the other marks the spot.
Anchor the wall by nailing up through the top plate into the ceiling plate. Make sure the edges of the two plates are flush. To protect a plaster ceiling, install the plate with 2-1/2-inch drywall screws. Check the wall for plumb with a carpenter's level, then nail the bottom plate to the floor.
Setting up a wall on a concrete floor presents a bigger challenge than merely nailing into a wood subfloor. Fortunately, there are plenty of solutions.
-- If the floor is less than four years old, drive specially hardened masonry nails through the bottom plate into the concrete. One-half inch of penetration prevents shifting, so drive 2-inch nails through lumber that measures 1-1/2 inches thick.
-- A powder-actuated tool uses an explosive charge to drive fasteners. Exercise extreme care and follow all the manufacturer's instructions.
-- Specialty masonry bits and screws designed for concrete fastening (Tapcon is one manufacturer) are suited for many applications.
-- Drill a hole into the concrete, then you can tap in a lead or plastic plug that accepts a threaded fastener.
-- Construction adhesive reduces the number of mechanical fasteners required, but don't rely on the adhesive alone.
Masonry nails work well to anchor the plate to a slab if the concrete is not too old. Be sure to wear safety goggles when hammering nails into concrete because pieces of concrete will fly.